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Friday, 14 October 2011

Kemahiran Dan Teknik Asas Permainan Alat Perkusi

Dram bes menggunakan “stand” atau digantung dan disandarkan pada bahagian perut pemain. Ia menggunakan pemukul khas. Paluan bahagian tengah muka dram pad kiri dan kanan. Dram juga boleh dipalu dengan menggunakan sebelah tangan sahaja.


Dram tenor mempunyai dua permukaan berkulit. Saiz dram tenor adalah besar sedikit daripada dram getar. Sepasang pemukul digunakan untuk memainkannya. Dram tenor tidak mempunyai gegetar.

Cara mengendali dan memainkan dram tenor :
  1. Laraskan ketinggian dram ke paras pinggang. Berdiri dengan selesa dan tidak rapat dengan badan dram, atau
  2. Sangkutkan dram pada badan menggunakan tali selepang.
  3. Pegang kayu pemukul pada had satu pertiga daripada kayu tersebut.
  4. Gunakan pemukul khas (mallet) dan palu permukaan dram sebelah atas


Dram getar mempunyai dua permukaan. Permukaan bawahnya terdapat gegetar yang bergetar apabila diketuk. Sepasang kayu pemukul digunakan untuk memainkannya.

Cara mengendali dan memainkan dram getar :
  1. Laraskan ketinggian dram ke paras pinggang. Berdiri dengan selesa dan pastikan badan tidak rapat dengan dram, atau
  2. Sangkutkan dram pada badan menggunakan tali selepang. (Untuk posisi di samping sahaja)
  3. Genggam kayu pemukul pada had satu pertiga daripada kayu tersebut.
  4. Palu permukaan atas dram kanan dan kiri secara bergilir-gilir.


Rupa bentuk Loceng merupakan segugusan loceng kecil yang dipasang pada bingkai. Bingkai berbentuk gelung diperbuat daripada plastik dan loceng-loceng logam kecil diikatkan pada bingkai tersebut. Loceng-loceng ini akan menghasilkan bunyi yang halus dan nyaring apabila digoncang.

Cara memegang dan memainkan loceng :
  1. Masukkan empat jari ke dalam gelong loceng dan genggam bahagian yang tidak berloceng. Loceng menghasilkan bunyi apabila ia digoncang.
  2. Genggam pemegang loceng dengan tangan kiri @ kanan. Kemudian ketuk pergelangan tangan kiri dengan tangan kanan yang menggenggam loceng.


Rupa bentuk Tik-tok lazimnya diperbuat daripada kayu. Ia mempunyai pemegang dan sebatang pengetuk. Tik-tok menghasilkan bunyi yang tidak lanjut. Bunyi yang dihasilkan daripada bahagian kanan tik-tok tidak sama dengan bunyi daripada bahagian kiri.
Cara memegang dan memainkan tik-tok
  1. Pegang tik-tok dengan tangan kiri dan pengetuknya dengan tangan kanan.
  2. Ketuk tik-tok pada bahagian kiri dan kanannya secara bergilir-gilir.

Tamborin merupakan sebuah gelung yang lazimnya diperbuat daripada kayu atau plastik. Di sekelilingnya terdapat ceper-ceper besi kecil yang menghasilkan bunyi apabila digoncang. Terdapat dua jenis tamborin iaitu tamborin berkulit dan tamborin tanpa kulit.

Lazimnya tamborin dimainkan dengan dua cara iaitu:
  1. Pegang tamborin dengan tangan kanan dan goyangkan ke kiri dan ke kanan.
  2. Pegang tamborin dengan tangan kiri @ kanan. Ketuk tepi tamborin atau kulit tamborin dengan hujung jari tangan kanan @ kiri.

Tuesday, 11 October 2011


The Angklung is a musical instrument made of two bamboo tubes attached to a bamboo frame. The tubes are carved to have a resonant pitch when struck and are tuned to octaves. The base of the frame is held in one hand, whilst the other hand shakes the instrument rapidly. This causes a repeating note to sound. Each of three or more performers in an angkalung ensemble play just one note or more, but altogether complete melodies are produced. The Angklung is popular throughout Southeast Asia, but it originated in today's Indonesia and has been played by the Sundanese for many centuries.

In Bali, an ensemble of angklung is called gamelan angklung (anklung). While the ensemble gets its name from the bamboo shakers, these days most compositions for Gamelan Angklung do not use them. An ensemble of mostly bronze metallophones is used instead, generally with about 20 musicians.
While the instrumentation of gamelan angklung is similar to gamelan gong kebyar, it has several critical differences. First, the instruments are tuned to a 5-tone slendro scale, though actually most ensembles use a four-tone mode of the five-tone scale played on instruments with four keys. An exception is the five-tone angklung from the north of Bali. But even in four-tone angklung groups, the flute players will occasionally touch on the fifth implied tone. Secondly, whereas many of the instruments in gong kebyar span multiple octaves of its pentatonic scale, mosts gamelan angklung instruments only contain one octave, although some five-tone ensembles have roughly an octave and a half. The instruments are considerably smaller than those of the gong kebyar.

Gamelan angklung is often heard in Balinese temples, where it supplies musical accompaniment to temple anniversaries (odalan). It is also characteristic of rituals related to death, and therefore connected in Balinese culture to the invisible spiritual realm and transitions from life to death and beyond. Because of its portability, gamelan angklung may be carried in processions while a funeral bier is carried from temporary burial in a cemetery to the cremation site. The musicians also often play music to accompany the cremation ceremony. Thus many Balinese listeners associate angklung music with strong emotions evoking a combination of sacred sweetness and sadness.
The structure of the music is similar to gong kebyar, although employing a four tone scale. Jublag and jegog carry the basic melody, which is elaborated by gangsa, reyong, ceng-ceng, drum, and flute. A medium sized gong, called kempur, is generally used to punctuate a piece's major sections.
Most older compositions do not employ gong kebyar's more ostentatious virtuosity and showmanship. Recently many Balinese composers have created kebyar-style works for gamelan angklung or have rearranged kebyar melodies to fit the angklung's more restricted four tone scale. These new pieces often feature dance, so the gamelan angklung is augmented with more gongs and heavier gongs. Additionally, some modern composers have created experimental instrumental pieces for the gamelan angklung.